An endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) uses an endoscope to remove GI lesions. An endoscope consists of a narrow tube with a light, camera, and other instruments. For an endoscopic submucosal dissection of the esophagus, stomach and upper intestine, the endoscope is placed down the throat. For an endoscopic submucosal dissection of the colon, the endoscope is placed through the anus.
During an endoscopic submucosal dissection, liquid (usually sterile saline) is injected to lift the cancerous growths or abnormal tissues from the healthy tissue. After that, the tumor is dissected out as a single piece with a healthy margin leaving the gastrointestinal tract intact. If necessary, the mucosa is closed with an endoscopic suturing device.
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